About the Dapivirine Vaginal Ring

dapivirine ring

What is the Dapivirine Vaginal Ring?

The first topical HIV prevention method to be submitted for regulatory approval, it is an intravaginal silicone ring, developed by the International Partnership for Microbicides (IPM) for HIV prevention.

The ring delivers an antiretroviral drug called dapivirine. It’s released slowly over the course of one month directly to vaginal tissue to help protect against HIV at the site of potential infection. Little of the drug is absorbed elsewhere in the body resulting in low systemic uptake.

This means that the drug is unlikely to be found in high concentrations in the bloodstream and other body tissues, which may reduce side effects as well the risk of development of HIV resistance. Data from Phase III studies of the ring show no evidence that the ring increased resistance to NNRTIs, the class of ARV drug to which dapivirine belongs and which is also used in some treatment regimens.

The Dapivirine Vaginal Ring reduces the risk of HIV-infection, and offers a discreet and long-acting alternative to daily oral PrEP.

Although access to daily oral PrEP is increasing around the world, a daily pill is not a suitable or desirable prevention method for everyone. Today, women account for more than half of all people living with HIV globally, and face persistently high HIV-infection rates. Experience introducing oral PrEP in many countries has revealed that women face unique challenges when it comes to adhering to a daily pill due to gender inequity, social norms and other structural barriers.

Efficacy data shows that the ring reduces HIV risk by 35 percent, with recent data from open label extension studies suggesting a greater reduction in HIV risk by about half. Modelling has shown that even a partially effective prevention option can have an important protective impact for women and their communities as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy.

Like oral PrEP, the Dapivirine Vaginal Ring does not protect against other STIs or unwanted pregnancy.

The ring does not reduce risk of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or herpes, or unwanted pregnancy. There are studies underway examining the safety of a combined dapivirine-levonorgestrel ring that would protect against both HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy, as well as different vaginal rings that combine antiretrovirals and other medications to prevent STIs.

IPM Ring Backgrounder

A two-page overview of the Dapivirine Vaginal Ring, including trial results, current status and next steps curated by IPM (updated regularly).

What is the status of the dapivirine vaginal ring’s approval?

The Dapivirine Vaginal Ring has been approved in some African Countries and is currently under review by several others.

In March 2021, the WHO released new clinical recommendations on HIV prevention which included detailed guidance for the dapivirine vaginal ring as an additional prevention choice for women at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of a combination prevention package. This followed an initial announcement in January 2021 where the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the dapivirine vaginal ring as an additional HIV prevention option for women at substantial risk for acquiring HIV. In November 2020, WHO prequalified the ring. Prequalification involves evaluating whether a medicine meets global standards for quality, safety and efficacy. Many African national regulatory agencies consider WHO prequalification as they review new products. In July 2020, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) gave a positive opinion on the use of the ring by women in low- and middle-income countries outside of the European Union. IPM, the ring’s developer, submitted the ring to the EMA for review under Article 58.

This procedure allows the EMA, in cooperation with the WHO, to apply European Union (EU) standards to provide a scientific opinion on the safety, efficacy and quality of medicines that would be marketed exclusively outside of the EU—specifically in low- and middle-income countries—for diseases of major public health interest. The positive opinion also recommended a post-authorization efficacy study to better understand efficacy among cisgender women aged 18-25, and to complement existing data on potential drug resistance.

The EMA’s positive opinion helps advance the ring from an investigational product to a real tool that women can use. IPM has applied for the ring to be reviewed by countries in sub-Saharan Africa, where women face persistently high HIV risk. For the latest information, visit IPM's website.

Planning for Introduction

A comprehensive plan for introduction is in place. For more, visit our page on the Global Action Plan.


Ensuring the voices of women and people with vaginas are heard is an essential component of ring introduction, just as it has been critical during clinical trials.

Advocacy Resources
  • PrEP Ring Perspectives: Voices for Prevention — This video series, developed by the MOSAIC Project, features the voices of former participants in the research trials that tested the dapivirine vaginal ring. Videos from Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and a compilation video showcase trial participants explaining why the ring works for them and their need for future access to this HIV prevention method.
  • Dapivirine Vaginal Ring Advocacy Messaging Resource Package – This is a tool for developing a messaging framework and implementation plan in support of advocacy activities for the dapivirine vaginal ring.
  • “Put A Ring On It: Four reasons to make the Dapivirine Vaginal Ring an HIV prevention option for women and girls” – this June 2020 blog highlights the importance of the ring and its potential as a woman-initiated biomedical option to be added to the HIV prevention toolkit.
  • “What Young Women Want” (AVAC Partners, 2017) — this letter comes from a group of young African women and reflects their HIV prevention research priorities. It was submitted to the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) during the open-comment period concerning the structure and agenda for its next funding cycle (2021-2027).
  • Inside My Purse — a blog by and for adolescent girls and young women across Africa. With sexual and reproductive health as its primary focus, the platform encourages visits and contributions from everyone who cares about promoting health, wellness and empowerment among young women.

Ring Resources and Ring Newsletter

Additional resources and planning tools can be found on the PrEP Planning A-Z pages For a one-page overview of ring resources, click here. For more, here's the latest issue of the PrEP Ring Quarterly Digest.